Published in The Adyar Library Bulletin 2014-15.
In three independent as well as inter-connected essays, Ashok Aklujkar tries to establish Kashmir as the homeland of Patanjali in the background of the importance assigned to the study of the Mahabhashya by the royalties and the epithets associated with Patanjali, who came to be worshipped as Naga/Ananta. The Rajatarangini statements on the revival of the Mahabhashya study in three widely separated times are reinterpreted along with the Vakyapadiya II.486 by Johannes Bronkhorst in his essay titled “A Note on Kashmir and Orthodox Paninian Grammar”. In his second essay, the author gives an insight into the free thinking of Udbhata, drawing from his interpretation of rules of Ashtadhyayi and the Lokayatasutra.
About nine essays directly deal with grammatical nuances and technicalities as found in the writings of Kashmiri thinkers. George Cardona tries to show the presence of theoretical precedents to one of the earliest grammatical elementary text namely, Katantra attributed to Sarvavarman. P. Visalakshy in her paper gives a comprehensive note on the authorship and structure of Kashika with a detailed account of its influence of Candragomin’s grammatical thought. Malhar Kulkarni’s new research findings of the manuscripts of the Kashikavritti in Shrada script adds to the rich repository of grammatical literature.
From Aurel Stein, Eugen Hultzsch, John Marshal, Alfred Stratton to George Grierson, all of them were helped in their studies of Kashmir by a man in Srinagar named Pandit Mukund Ram Shastri. In early 1900s, 23 of the 29 books of “Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies” were brought out by Research Department of Jammu and Kashmir under his editorship. Books that are still read and shared in academic circles. And yet, if you Google Image Search, you will find no photograph of Mukund Ram Shastri. You can easily find Stein, Hultzsch, Marshal, Stratton and George Grierson, but no Mukund Ram Shastri. Given here is a photograph of Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit Mukund Ram Shastri, found in the biography of Stratton, ‘Letters from India, by Alfred William Stratton, with a memoir by his wife Anna Booth Stratton and an introductory note by Professor Bloomfield’ (1908).
(This post is reproduced from Search Kashmir with due permission from its owner).
Persian was the basis of administrations all over western Asia and the highly prestigious language at the courts. Hence, Persian learning radiated into Kashmir and found a fertile soil after the initial impulse.
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Kashmir’s Contested Pasts: Narratives, Geographies, and the Historical Imagination
This is an extended chronicle of the historical imagination in Kashmir. It explores the conversations between the ideas of Kashmir and the ideas of history taking place within Kashmir’s multilingual historical tradition. Contrary to the notion that the Indian subcontinent did not produce histories in the pre-colonial period, the book uncovers the production, circulation, and consumption of a vibrant regional tradition of historical composition in its textual, oral, and performance forms, from the late sixteenth century to the present.
History and history-writing, as the book illustrates, were defined in multiple ways—as tradition, facts, memories, stories, common sense, and spiritual practice. Analysing the deep linkages among Sanskrit, Persian, and Kashmiri narratives, this book contends that these traditions drew on and influenced each other to define Kashmir as a sacred landscape and polity. Within this interconnected narrative tradition, Kashmir was, and continues to be, imagined as far more than simply an unsettled territory or a tourist paradise.
Offering a historically grounded reflection on the memories, narrative practices, and institutional contexts that have informed imaginings of Kashmir and its past, this book depicts how Kashmir’s history and its territory seem especially embattled in its present political culture. It thus places these contemporary debates over territory, identity, and sovereignty in a much longer historical context.
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“Kāśmīra śivādvayavāda meṃ pramāṇa-cintana”: “epistemological speculation in the monistic Śaivism of Kashmir” (pp.14+264) published by LD Institute, Ahmedabad.
About the Book:
The present monograph opens up a virtually hitherto unexplored area of fertile intellectual tradition of the Trika namely the epistemological. The foremost motivation for the author has been to seek an identifiable Trika model of philosophical enquiry, if there is one. The model, so envisaged, is theorized by him as the Dynamic Theory of Knowledge pivoted on the notion of re- cognition (pratyabhijñā) conceptualized as a rudimentary generalized mode of cognition per se. Spread over seven chapters under two sections plus a large thematic appendix the work seeks to reconstruct system’s precise formulations along the nature and definition of source of knowing and its specific modes, integral instrumentalities and the process mechanisms at work graphically recaptured and represented by seven tabular charts. The whole presentation is contextualized within the Trika ontology and against the inherited traditions of logical discourse.
CONTENTS IN ENGLISH
￼￼Chapter One : Metaphysical sub-stratum
(ii) Ontological framework
Chapter Two : Epistemological theorizing
(i) Textual sources
(ii) Meaning of knowledge
(iii) Major concerns of epistemological enquiry
(a) Knowledge of knowledge: self-luminosity
(b) Knowledge not an object of another knowledge
(c) Validity and invalidity of knowledge
Chapter Three : Ingredients of knowing
(a) Sub-notions of subjectivity
(b) Permanence and apriority
(c) Aesthetic dimension
(ii) Source of valid knowledge
(a) Pramāṇa-dependent establishment of an object (meya-siddhi) and the pragmatic role of epistemological functioning (vyavahàra-sàdhanatà)
(b) Definition of pramāṇa
(c) Dhārāvāhika jñāna (unitary flow of knowledge), pramāṇa– saṃplava vis-à-vis pramāṇa-definition
(iii) Valid knowledge
(a) Non-difference between pramāṇa and its result (pramāṇa-phala)
(b) Divergence from the Buddhist view
(iv) The object of valid knowledge
(a) Principle of viṣayatāpatti (objectfication)
(b) Epistemic object intrinsically a universal (ābhāsa)
(c) ābhāsavāda : the sole object of pramāṇa-activity= an ābhāsa (manifestation)
(v) Abādhitatva (non-contradictedness)
(a) non-contradictedness: an essential component of pramāṇa-definition
(b) saṃvāda(“coherence”) and pramāṇa-definition
(c) pramāṇa and purposive action (pravṛtti)
(vi) Original insights of the śaivas
(a) Instrumentalization of the indeterminate perception (prakāśa : luminous immediacy)
(b) Pramā is bāhyatādhyavasāya (determinate apprehension of the externality)
(vii) The meta-epistemological nature of pramāṇa
Part Two (Kinds of sources of knowing)
Chapter Four: Statement of the problem
Chapter Five: Perception
(i) Definition of perception
(ii) Object of perception
(iii) Indeterminate-determinate perception : a dynamic concept
(iv) Types of perception
(a) Sensory perception a. Process of sensory perception
(b) Mental perception
(c) Yogic perception a. Immediacy of awareness : shining of manifestational vividity in awareness
b. The gateway to cognition of an other’s mind is through identification with the other
c. Impact of the Buddhist notion of bhāvaāprakarṣa
Chapter Six: Inference
(i) Inference : dependent and indirect cognition
(ii) Inference as reasoning (yukti)
(iii) Definition of inference
(a) Deterministic causation underlining vyāpti (relation of necessary dependent concomitance) : logical reason (hetu : middle term) redefined
(iv) Constituent parts of inference
Chapter Seven: āgama
(i) Context and background
(ii) āgama as prasiddhi (inherited cognition) (I)
(iii) āgama as prasiddhi (inherited cognition) (II)
(a) Essential unity of all scriptures: sarvāgamaprāmāṇya
(b) Two-fold variety of prasiddhi : the composed and the non- composed
(c) Source of scriptural validity:firm rooting of conviction (vimarśanirūḍhi)
(iv) āgama as śabdana (verbalizing)/pratibhāna (intuitive reflecting)
(a) Triple contextualization of śabdana
(v) āgama as āpti (verbal testimony : authenticity of the perfected being)
(a) Different kinds of the perfected authority
(b) āpti morphosized into prasiddhi
(vi) Investigating the epistemological structure of āgama
Appendix Manas and Jñānendriyas in Kashmir Śaivism